What's the relationship between DNA, nucleotides, genes, and chromosomes? | Yahoo Answers
What is the clearly stated difference between DNA, genes, chromosomes and our eye and hair color, our height, the shape of our ears and the curl in our toes. . nearest is that they are arrangements of the nucleotides, making amino acids. Chromosomes carry genetic information in a molecule called DNA. that when a cell divides each new cell produced has the same genetic information. DNA. Genes. A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein. So, for example, one A photograph of a person's chromosomes, arranged according to size.
Each amino acid can be coded for by more than one codon. A codon table sets out how the triplet codons code for specific amino acids. DNA replication The enzyme helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together, and both strands can then act as templates for the production of the opposite strand. The process is catalysed by the enzyme DNA polymerase, and includes a proofreading mechanism.
Genes The gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. It consists of a specific sequence of nucleotides at a given position on a given chromosome that codes for a specific protein or, in some cases, an RNA molecule. Genes consist of three types of nucleotide sequence: These genes are known, collectively, as the human genome.
Chromosomes Eukaryotic chromosomes The label eukaryote is taken from the Greek for 'true nucleus', and eukaryotes all organisms except viruses, Eubacteria and Archaea are defined by the possession of a nucleus and other membrane-bound cell organelles.
The nucleus of each cell in our bodies contains approximately 1.
DNA, genes and chromosomes — University of Leicester
This DNA is tightly packed into structures called chromosomes, which consist of long chains of DNA and associated proteins. In eukaryotes, DNA molecules are tightly wound around proteins - called histone proteins - which provide structural support and play a role in controlling the activities of the genes.
A strand to nucleotides long is wrapped twice around a core of eight histone proteins to form a structure called a nucleosome. The chains of histones are coiled in turn to form a solenoid, which is stabilised by the histone H1. Further coiling of the solenoids forms the structure of the chromosome proper.
What's the relationship between DNA, nucleotides, genes, and chromosomes?
Each chromosome has a p arm and a q arm. The p arm from the French word 'petit', meaning small is the short arm, and the q arm the next letter in the alphabet is the long arm.
In their replicated form, each chromosome consists of two chromatids. Chromosome unraveling to show the base pairings of the DNA The chromosomes - and the DNA they contain - are copied as part of the cell cycle, and passed to daughter cells through the processes of mitosis and meiosis.
DNA, genes and chromosomes
Read more about the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis Human beings have 46 chromosomes, consisting of 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes: One member of each pair of chromosomes comes from the mother through the egg cell ; one member of each pair comes from the father through the sperm cell.
A photograph of the chromosomes in a cell is known as a karyotype. The autosomes are numbered in decreasing size order.
All living things depend on genes as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains. Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body.
They are necessary for building the structural components of the human body, such as muscles and organs. Proteins also determine how the organism looks, how well its body metabolises food or fights infection and sometimes even how it behaves.
Proteins are chains of chemical building blocks called amino acids. A protein may contain a few amino acids or it could have several thousands. The size of a protein is an important physical characteristic that provides useful information including changes in conformation, aggregation state and denaturation.
Protein scientists often use particle size analysers in their studies to discuss protein size or molecular weight. Archibald Garrod Archibald Garrod was one of the first scientists to propose that genes controlled the function of proteins. Inhe published his observations regarding patients whose urine turned black. This condition known as alkaptonuria happens when there is a buildup of the chemical homogentisate, which causes the darkening of urine.
In most situations, excess amounts of amino acid phenylalanine are metabolised by the body.