Middle Ages for Kids: Feudal System and Feudalism
With the growth of trade and commerce a number of new cities and towns grew which provided new opportunities for work. The serfs got an. Kids learn about the feudal system during the Middle Ages and Medieval times. Feudalism with lords and manors, serfs and peasants. It started at the top with the king granting his land to a baron for soldiers all the way down to a peasant. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN. THEM Over time, the Feudal system became more formalized Peasants are commoners and lived on the manors of monarchs.
Normally the peasant was unfree; he could not without leave quit the manor and could be reclaimed by process of law if he did.
Manorial Vs. Feudalism by Ali Mills on Prezi
The strict contention of law deprived him of all right to hold property, and in many cases he was subject to certain degrading incidents, such as marchet merchetuma payment due to the lord upon the marriage of a daughter, which was regarded as a special mark of unfree condition.
But there were certain limitations.
First, all these incidents of tenureeven marchet, might not affect the personal status of the tenant; he might still be free, though held by an unfree tenure. Second, even if unfree, he was not exposed to the arbitrary will of his lord but was protected by the custom of the manor as interpreted by the manor court. Moreover, he was not a slavesince he could not be bought and sold apart from his holding.
Difference between Feudalism and Manorialism - World History Online
The hardship of his condition lay in the services due from him. As a rule, a villein paid for his holding in money, in labour, and in agrarian produce.
In money he paid, first, a small fixed rent that was known as rent of assize and, second, dues under various names, partly in lieu of services commuted into money payments and partly for the privileges and profits enjoyed by him on the waste of the manor. In labour he paid more heavily. The most-complicated structure in the system was the manor court, whose business was divided into criminal, manorialand civil.
Its powers under the first head depended on the franchises enjoyed by the lord in the particular manor. For the most part, only petty offenses were triable, such as small thefts, breaches of the assize of bread and aleassaults, and the like.
Except under special conditions, the justice of great offenses remained in the hands of the king or other territorial sovereign. Under the head of manorial business, the court dealt with the choice of the manorial officers and had some power of making regulations for the management of the manor, but its most important function was the recording of the surrenders and admittances of the villein tenants.
Difference between Feudalism and Manorialism
Finally, the court dealt with all suits as to land within the manor, questions of dower and inheritanceand those few civil suits not connected with land. The revival of commerce that began in Europe in the 11th century signaled the decline of the manorial system, which could only survive in a decentralized and localized economy in which peasant subsistence farming was dominant.
As a result, lords increasingly allowed their peasants to commute their labour services for money and eventually to purchase their freedom with it as well. Agricultural surpluses could now be sold to the cities and towns, and it was found that free workers who paid rent or received wages farmed more efficiently and produced more profits than enserfed labourers. Owing to these and other economic reasons, the inefficient and coercive manorial system disintegrated in western Europe, gradually evolving into simpler and less-onerous economic arrangements between landlords and rent-paying tenants.
The Catholic Church was very powerful in most parts of Medieval Europe and this made the Bishop powerful as well. Not only that, but the church received a tithe of 10 percent from all the people. This made some Bishops very rich. Barons and Nobles- The Barons and high ranking nobles ruled large areas of land called fiefs.
They reported directly to the king and were very powerful. They divided up their land among Lords who ran individual manors. Their job was to maintain an army that was at the king's service.
If they did not have an army, sometimes they would pay the king a tax instead. This tax was called shield money.
Lords and Knights - The lords ran the local manors. They also were the king's knights and could be called into battle at any moment by their Baron. The lords owned everything on their land including the peasants, crops, and village.
They had a hard rough life. Some peasants were considered free and could own their own businesses like carpenters, bakers, and blacksmiths.
Others were more like slaves. They owned nothing and were pledged to their local lord. They worked long days, 6 days a week, and often barely had enough food to survive. Peasants worked hard and died young. Most were dead before they reached 30 years old.
The kings believed they were given the right to rule by God. This was called "divine right".