Himalayas Mountains, Mount Everest
The Himalayas, or Himalaya form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. in association with Moddie, A.D., The Himalaya, Aspects of Change. Delhi, Oxford. Mount Everest: Mount Everest, mountain on the crest of the Great Himalayas of played a subordinate role in expeditions; rarely, for example, has one of their. The word Himalaya is Sanskrit for "abode of the snow" and a Himal is a massif of mountains. Technically Himalaya is the plural of Himal and there should be no.
Himalayas and Plate Tectonics: The Himalayas began 65 million years when the Indian subcontinent climaxed a 70 million year journey across the Indian Ocean with a collision into Asia. The force and pressure of the collision between the Asian plate and India, pushed massive folds of sedimentary rock up from out of the earth. The pressure and heat of the mountain building forces turned some of rock into metamorphic rocks such schists and gneisses. Wind, rain, run off and glacial ice created the awesome Alpine shapes you see today.
Much of the rock pushed upwards by the mountain building activity is limestone and sandstone that was once at the bottom of the ocean. It is possible to find fossils of sea creatures in the Himalayas at an elevation of four kilometers above sea level. Plate tectonic continues to push the Indian subcontinent under Nepal and China, which sit on the Eurasian Plate, forcing Tibet and the entire Himalayan range to rise about 10 millimeters a year and move towards China at a rate if about five centimeters a year.
Before it was pushed upwards Tibet was a well watered plain. As the Himalayas were pushed up they deprived Tibet of rain, turning it into a dry plateau. The Indian Plate is moving northeastward at a rate of 1. A great amount of energy drives the collision and is released at the boundaries of the plates, which explains partly why India, NepalTibet and China experience sometimes experience devastating earthquakes.
Taller than 21 Empire State buildings piled on top of one another and almost as high as the cruising altitude of Boeing jumbo jets, Mt. Everest is so high that it sometimes penetrates the jet stream, blowing mountain climbers off the top, and dozens of feet have to be subtracted from surveying measurements to compensate for the gravity created by the mountain. Located on the border of Tibet China and Nepal, Mt. Everest is sometimes referred to as the third pole. It was first known to British surveyorswho first sighted it many miles away in Denhra Dun in India and took measurements of its heights from thereas Peak XV.
In it became significant when a Bengali clerk working in an office in Delhi exclaimed "I have discovered the highest mountain in world" after tabulating measurements of Peak XV from different survey stations across northern India in and Everest most likely never saw the mountain named after him. It is believed he would likely have preferred a local name given to tthe mountain. The Nepalese call Mt. For them the mountain is sacred and the idea of climbing it, until recently, was strange. According to a Sherpa legend Mt.
Everest is the home of a goddess bearing a bowl of food and a mongoose spitting jewels. Everest is located at about the same latitude as Tampa, Florida. Climbers say that other mountains are much more difficult to climb than Mt. Jan Morris, who accompanied the first successful Everest expedition, wrote: Hardly anybody has been it from the summit itself because few climbers are there at those times. Using a global positional device GPS placed on the summit inscientists at the University of Colorado calculated the height of Mt.
Everest to be 29, feet, or 8, meters. This is seven feet higher than earlier estimates. The new height was recognized by the National Geographic Society and placed on their maps.
The measurements were made after a Seattle-based astronomer claimed in that K2 in Pakistan might be 29, feet high, making it higher that Mt. The K2 measurement was made measuring the altitude of a knoll near K2 using a pound Doppler receiver a device that measures distance through analysis of slight variations in the wavelength of radio waves on the knoll and a satellite passing overhead and then using ordinary triangulation to determine the height of K2.
The first survey of Mt. Everest in the s came up with the altitude figure of 29, feet based on measurements taken at six sites in the India plains. A second survey made at the turn of the century determined the height of Mt.
Everest was 29, feet. In thewhen Indian surveyors made 12 readings at locations much closer to the mountain, they came with the widely accepted elevation of 29, feet 8, meters.
MOUNTAINS, THE HIMALAYAS AND MT. EVEREST | Facts and Details
The global positioning device taken to the summit of Mt. Everest in was placed there by mountain climbers.
The devise also determined that Everest is still rising at a rate of about a third of an inch every year and moving northeast at rate of three inches a year. Recently a Chinese mountaineering revised the height of Mt. Everest as four meters lower. Still there is some debate as to what is the world's highest mountain. Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii stands 33, feet above the ocean floor and 13, feet above sea level.
According to the Guinness Book of Records, Chimborazo, a 20,feet-high volcano in Ecuador, is 7, feet further from the center of the earth than Mt. It's distance from the earth's center is a result of the fact that Chimborazo is only 98 miles from the equator the earth is slightly flat at the poles and wide at the equator. Chimborazo was thought to bebthe highest mountain in the world until the s.
Because the original measurements of Mt. Everest were made from the faraway plains of India, the height calculations were corrected by as much as 1, feet to compensate for refraction alone. Moreover, the chain of triangulation locations began 1, miles way in Madras. For K2, they began 1, miles away in Madras. The early surveyors were prohibited from crossing into Tibet by the Chinese emperor. To get around this the British hired local tribesmen who disguised their surveyor chains as prayer beads.
These tribesmen were educated men known as "pandits. All measurements of Mt. Everest are based on the elevation of the snowcap on the summit not the summit itself. No one knows how deep the snow is and it may vary as much as three feet in the course of a year. Everest on the Nepalese border near the Tibetan monastery of Rongbuk looks like a completely different mountain than the naked black peak visitors see from the Nepalese side.
The route that most Everest mountain climbers have taken on the Tibetan side is on the northeast Ridge. This was the route taken by Reinhold Messner, the first man to climb Everest solo, and George Mallory who got within feet of the summit in before he disappeared.
The Tibetan east face is a massive wall of ice rising out of the desolate Tibetan plateau. This side of the mountain, scaled first by an American expedition in Julycan be reached from the village of Kharta. Qomolangma National Park was established in It covers 13, square miles and is home to around 80, people. It stretches northward from Mt. Everest onto the Tibetan plateau. Tibetan Climbing Route on Mt.
The Tibetan Route on Mt. Everest avoids the dangerous traversal of the Khumbu Icefall but involves more climbing skill and more time above 25, feet.
HIMALAYAS AND MT. EVEREST
The base camp is located at 17, feet. From there the ascent is relatively easy and gentle to Camp I at One of the most difficult parts of the climb is up the somewhat technically demanding rock face to Camp V at 25, feet.
This area marks the start of the Punjab Himalaya and the Sutlej riverthe most easterly of the five tributaries of the Induscuts through the range here.
Beyond lies the renown Kashmir Valley and the town and lakes of Srinagar. Geology of the Himalaya The Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock.
According to the modern theory of plate tectonicsits formation is a result of a continental collision or orogeny along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. About 50 million years ago this fast moving Indo-Australian Plate had completely closed the Tethys Oceanthe existence of which has been determined by sedimentary rocks settled on the ocean floor and the volcanoes that fringed its edges. Since both plates were composed of low density continental crustthey were thrust faulted and folded into mountain ranges rather than subducting into the mantle along an oceanic trench.
The movement of the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region seismically active, leading to earthquakes from time to time. During the last ice agethere was a connected ice stream of glaciers between Kangchenjunga in the east and Nanga Parbat in the west.
Thus, the climate was at least 7. As a result, the main ridge of the Himalayas is not clearly defined, and mountain passes are not as significant for traversing the range as with other mountain ranges.
The rivers of the Himalayas drain into two large river systems: The western rivers combine into the Indus Basin. The Indus itself forms the northern and western boundaries of the Himalayas. It begins in Tibet at the confluence of Sengge and Gar rivers and flows north-west through India into Pakistan before turning south-west to the Arabian Sea. It is fed by several major tributaries draining the southern slopes of the Himalayas, including the JhelumChenabRaviBeas and Sutlej rivers, the five rivers of the Punjab.
The other Himalayan rivers drain the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin. Its main rivers are the Gangesthe Brahmaputra and the Yamunaas well as other tributaries.
The Brahmaputra originates as the Yarlung Tsangpo River in western Tibet, and flows east through Tibet and west through the plains of Assam. The Ganges and the Brahmaputra meet in Bangladesh and drain into the Bay of Bengal through the world's largest river delta, the Sunderbans.
The SalweenMekongYangtze and Yellow River all originate from parts of the Tibetan Plateau that are geologically distinct from the Himalaya mountains and are therefore not considered true Himalayan rivers. Some geologists refer to all the rivers collectively as the circum-Himalayan rivers. In recent years, scientists have monitored a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat across the region as a result of global climate change. Although the effect of this will not be known for many years, it potentially could mean disaster for the hundreds of millions of people who rely on the glaciers to feed the rivers during the dry seasons.
Most of the larger lakes are on the northern side of the main range. South of the main range, the lakes are smaller. Tilicho Lake in Nepal in the Annapurna massif is one of the highest lakes in the world.
MOUNTAINS, THE HIMALAYAS AND MT. EVEREST
Some of the lakes present a danger of a glacial lake outburst flood. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Upper Mustang The vast size, huge altitude range and complex topography of the Himalayas mean they experience a wide range of climates, from humid subtropical in the foothills to cold, dry desert conditions on the Tibetan side of the range.
For much of Himalayas — that on the south side of the high mountains, except in the furthest west, the most characteristic feature of the climate is the monsoon.
Heavy rain arrives on the south-west monsoon in June and persists until September. The monsoon can seriously impact transport and cause major landslides. In Nepal and Sikkim, there are often considered to be five seasons: Higher up, most of the Himalayas have a subtropical highland climate Cwb.
In the furthest west of the Himalayas, in the west of the Kashmir valley and the Indus valley, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a dominant factor and most precipitation falls in the spring.
The Annapurna range of the Himalayas. The northern side of the Himalayas, also known as the Tibetan Himalaya, is dry, cold and generally wind swept particularly in the west where it has a cold desert climate. The vegetation is sparse and stunted and the winters are severely cold. Most of the precipitation in the region is in the form of snow during late winter and spring months.
Local impacts on climate are significant throughout the Himalayas. Temperatures fall by 6. This gives rise to a variety of climates from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra and permanent snow and ice. Local climate is also affected by the topography: Thus although annual precipitation is generally higher in east than the west, local variations are often more important.
The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau. They prevent frigid, dry winds from blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South Asia much warmer than corresponding temperate regions in the other continents.
It also forms a barrier for the monsoon winds, keeping them from traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai region.
The Himalayas are also believed to play an important part in the formation of Central Asian deserts, such as the Taklamakan and Gobi. Ecology of the Himalayas Captive snow leopard The flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils.
The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude, rainfall and soil conditions combined with the very high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant and animal communities. The extremes of high altitude low atmospheric pressure combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms.
Its prey includes members of the goat family grazing on the alpine pastures and living on the rocky terrain, notably the endemic bharal or Himalayan blue sheep. The Himalayan musk deer is also found at high altitude. Hunted for its musk, it is now rare and endangered. Other endemic or near endemic herbivores include the Himalayan tahrthe takinthe Himalayan serowand the Himalayan goral.
The critically endangered Himalayan subspecies of the brown bear is found sporadically across the range as is the Asian black bear.